HOW SHOULD THE DEMANDS OF NEW ZEALANDERS
TIMBERS BE MET?
Appendix to Verbal Submission to the Primary Production Select Committee. by Brian Swale, 4 March 2001.
WHAT ARE SPECIALTY TIMBERS (SPECIAL PURPOSE TIMBERS)?
can be described in various ways. In this submission the distinction is between timbers suitable for general uses and those with qualities suiting them for special purpose uses.Timbers for 'general uses'.Firstly, timbers in New Zealand that are generally considered to suit general uses include radiata, corsican, and other pines, and douglas-fir (also called 'oregon'). Most of the indigenous timber species and many exotic species other than those named above have been used for many of these general purposes at some time or other, with the general exception of particle, pulp and other fibre products.
These can be used for general construction, cases and pallets, structural purposes, fencing, poles and piling, non-specific particle- and fibre-board, kraft and news-paper pulp, plywood and other veneer, lower-quality interior building finishing purposes, lower-quality joinery and furniture.
In general, the technology has been developed for these species to be sawn or otherwise converted from the round log to plank, sheet or fabric form, and preservative treatments are available to extend the scope of use for a range of hazardous situations. The particle- and fibre-boards can be used for flooring, interior finishing mouldings to be painted, and as a base for veneer either of wood or melamine and other synthetics for use in furniture surfaces.
Timber uses requiring special properties include:
- Cladding for buildings - shiplap or weather-board and
- Furniture structure (hidden under fabric)
- Furniture finishing including bending timbers.
- Building and boat interiors especially when the grain and colour of the timber is to remain visible.
- Fine flooring including parquet.
- Cross-arms for electricity and telephone poles.
- Tool handles; impact and non-impact.
- Wood-turning and machining purposes including some of the above.
- Exterior decking, balustrades and railings, exterior furniture.
- Exterior joinery (window-sills, sashes).
- Certain veneers; decorative, marine.
- Special purpose (including marine) plywoods
The specially valued and important properties possessed by special purpose species.
These include the following - not necessarily possessed all in the same timber:
- Higher strength (various measures in this generalisation)
- Greater hardness (several measures in this generalisation)
- Stiffness, especially in furniture and joinery (bookcase shelves, for example)
- Resistance to cracking, splitting and splintering.
- Resistance to breaking when shocked (axe, slasher, pick and maul handles)
ability to split easily (for roof shingles, for example).
- Greater dimensional stability - the property of not shrinking and swelling with changes in moisture content and exposure to sunshine and heat,
- Resistance to wear from abrasion (some floors and decking)
- Neutral colour combined with the ability to take up stains evenly and easily.
- Specific rich colour, grain or figure.
- Excellent machining, cutting and turning.
- Excellent finishing - the property of being able to be smoothed to a fine smooth surface.
- Absence of defects such as cracks, splits, knots.
- Ability to hold fastenings firmly.
- Ability to be glued soundly.
- Ability to be bent using steam.
- Grain properties - attractive grain; straight grain - or, in some uses, interlocked or wavy grain.
- Excellent natural durability (resistance to fungal and bacterial rot and to insect attack, resistance to cracking and destruction by sunlight) in moderate to extreme hazard situations.
Special purpose species in New Zealand.
In a 'Workshop on Special Purpose Species' held in 1979;
the following uses were identified as requiring timber from special species of tree:-
- furniture and cabinet work
- exterior joinery
- decorative veneer and plywood
- flooring (strip and parquet)
The following species were identified having properties meeting sufficient of the special requirements, and as having good potential for growth in New Zealand.
- ash-type eucalypts (
E. regnans, E. delegatensis, E. obliqua, E. nitens
- cypresses, particularly
and C. lusitanica.
- other eucalypts, particularly Eucalyptus saligna and
- black walnut and blackwood (Acacia
Not mentioned were poplars and willows. Poplars, willows and birches have naturally white wood which can be used to make fine white papers and white fibre-boards, in addition to distinct and sometimes unique or nearly unique uses for their solid timber.
Scant consideration was given to indigenous species at this
ALTERNATIVE SUBSTANCES THAT CAN CARRY OUT FUNCTIONS OF SPECIAL PURPOSE SPECIES, AND THEIR ENERGY AND SOCIAL COSTS
For many of the typical and historic uses of special purpose timbers, a variety of alternative materials have been developed or adopted in these uses; glass, plastics (solid, sheet and foam), fibreglass, dry-wall (gib-board) stone (marble etc), concrete; aluminium, steel, and other metals, extruded, rolled and cast.
Some consumers do accept these alternative materials in some situations, and some do not.
In considering the merits of such materials one should also consider and evaluate the energy and other costs associated with their use.
Some alternative materials used for the following purposes
- Wooden ladders; aluminium
- White fibre-board; dry-wall or gib-board (calcium sulphate plus fibreglass and kraft paper)
- Decking (as for wharves); general purpose species such as radiata pine.
- Cladding for buildings - shiplap or weather-board and other; plastics, cement-board (Hardiplank), stucco over plywood, concrete block or brick veneer.
- Furniture structure (hidden under fabric); metals, plastics, medium-density fibreboard.
Furniture finishing including bending timbers. Plastics, fibreglass, metals, glass,
- Building and boat interiors especially when the grain and colour of the timber is to remain visible; plastics.
- Fine flooring including parquet. Nothing is really equivalent.
- Cross-arms for electricity and telephone poles. None.
- Tool handles; impact and non-impact; Fibreglass, metal.
- Wood-turning and machining purposes including some of the above; plastics and metals.
- Exterior decking, balustrades and railings, exterior furniture; concrete, plastics, cast and other metals principally aluminium and iron.
- Exterior joinery (window-sills, sashes). Aluminium mainly, sometimes galvanised steel.
- Certain veneers; decorative, marine; plastics in the guise of fine woods.
- Special purpose (including marine) plywoods; fibreglass, concrete, aluminium. steel.
- Decking for boats, fibreglass, metals.
- Games and puzzles; plastics.
- Kitchen-ware; plastics, stainless steel, aluminium, enamelware.
THE TIMBER PROPERTIES AND HISTORICAL USES OF THE MOST USEFUL INDIGENOUS TREE SPECIES.
truncata)Strong, hard, moderately tough, fine and even textured. Seasoning requires care. Heartwood durable. Machines smoothly, wears evenly, steam-bends well.Mine-props, farm utility, bridges and wharves, flooring, framing,
tough, fine, even-textured. Heartwood durable. Easily seasoned.
timbers, gates, posts, firewood, turning and
peels, slices very well. Even and close textured. Very good machining, turning,
finishing and wearing properties. Very good for hand-tool working. Probably the
most stable of the indigenous timbers used in furniture. Steam-bends easily.
'Talks' as a mine timber. Non-splintering and moderately strong.
decking, posts, mine timber, fluming, framing, flooring, stock-yards, gates,
hurdles, dowels, handles, furniture, panelling: generally an alternative to
varies considerably throughout New Zealand - higher in the north, lower in the
west and south. Southland timber
light, strong, versatile. Easily seasoned. Even fine grain and texture.
Non-splintering. Very good machining
implements, turnery, motor bodies, boat frames, brush backs, flooring, interior
finish, weatherboards, general building, farm timbers, mining timber, box
machines and finishes well. Fine and even texture, strong, tough. Resists
other body-building, furniture, bridge runners and decking, turnery, flooring,
cross-arms, framing, gate and fence
sawn and seasoned. Lacks taint and smell. White. Large sizes, defect-free. Very
joinery, flooring, boat-building, wooden-ware, food preparation equipment,
sawn and seasoned. Straight grain, fine and even texture, pleasant distinctive
figure, Heartwood generally durable. Working qualities excellent in all
respects. Finishes to perfection. Dimensionally
vats, boat building, building, general, furniture, carving, turnery,
dresses and turns very well. Excellent strength and toughness. Moderately fine
and even texture. Steam-bends very well. Sometimes has very attractive
requiring toughness, sporting goods, boat framing, medium-duty handles, interior
finish including veneer, bridge runners, framing, pens, battens and
sawn, seasoned and machined. Good durability, fine and even texture,
exceptionally stable dimensionally. Hard and tough. Prone to splitting if
handled carelessly (pre-bore dry timber prior to nailing). Stem-bends fairly
weatherboarding, sills, fixed exterior joinery, decking, framing. Excellent
sawn and seasons well with care. Strong and hard. Uniform fine texture. Takes a
fine finish, machines and steam-bends well.
weatherboarding, interior finish, framing. A good alternative to
sawn, dried and nailed. Very soft. Moderately strong for its density. Fine,
body-building, weather boards, trellis, wedge heels, clogs, verandah floors,
special sawing. Tough and hard-wearing, non-skid properties. Machines well,
peeling satisfactory. Decorative
and decorative furniture work. Flooring. Uses requiring
sawn and seasoned. Dense, hard, close and even in texture, even-wearing,
machines and finishes excellently. Straight-grained. Splits easily. Heartwood
steam-bends very well. Takes paints and finishes very
weather-boarding, interior finish, furniture, framing, general carpentry,
and seasons easily. The strongest New Zealand conifer. Straight-grained,
dimensionally stable. Does not split easily. Fine and even texture. Dresses and
turns very well, takes a fine finish.
and exterior joinery, boat framing, sporting goods, veneers, vehicle bodies,
to fell. Saws easily, seasoning now well understood. Excellent strength,
hardness and finishing. A white wood. Very straight grain, splits easily.
Decorative when kiln-dried. Somewhat like some
turned handles, rollers, clothes pegs, furniture, interior finish,
and seasons easily. Brittle. Outstanding durability, evenness of texture,
working and dimensional stability. Straight grain, splits very easily. Amenable
to all machining, finishes very
and doors, tanks, vats, boat sheathing, building, fence
COMMENTS ON SITING, GROWING REQUIREMENTS AND SAWING OF SOME SPECIAL PURPOSE SPECIES.
exotic species have shown unexpectedly poor growth in New Zealand. For some,
such as spruces and hemlock
the poor growth is probably due to the absence in New Zealand of the mycorrhizal
fungi required to infect their roots for optimum nutrient uptake. In the case of
douglas-fir, there are about 10,000 species of mycorrhizal fungi in North
America which are not yet in New
other northern hemisphere genera which yield special purpose timber, such as
(beeches), in general New Zealand lacks the deep, very fertile soils in high
rainfall areas with high summer temperature for them to thrive. Where present,
these soils are also the most expensive in New Zealand, being valued at present
at about $120,000 per hectare. On other soils the growth of these genera can be
less than optimal, or even
unacceptable.The most desirable special purpose eucalypts also thrive best in good soils, and some require the higher temperatures of Northland.
Eucalypt timber requires particularly finicky and careful treatment if severe spoiling and
consequent loss are to be avoided. To quote from N. C. Clifton's book 'New Zealand Timber, Exotic and Indigenous - The Compete Guide' (GP Books 1990). 'Eucalypt logs are like no other logs on earth. In their handling, the following points should be noted:-
- Trees must be felled and extracted with care in as long a length as practicable.
- Bark is most easily removed in the bush shortly before extraction. However, care should be taken to prevent the drying out of the log before sawing.
- Where possible, logs should be stored under water sprays or in ponds for at least three months before sawing. This is standard practice in Australia, where bush operations have to cease during the winter and logs may have to be stored for six months or more. The water sprays prevent general drying out; they minimise end grain splits developing in the logs; and they also gradually reduce the adverse effect of growth stresses especially in the worst affected logs. There should be no more than one month's delay between felling and water storage - less in summer - if splitting is to be minimised.
- Bush logs should be cross-cut to sawlog length no more than four hours before sawing.
- Sawing may be either immediately to final dimension or to thicknessed slabs for drying followed by re-sawing to final width.
For a detailed account of suitable sawing equipment and sawing procedures for the eucalypts in New Zealand, see FRI Bulletin No. 142, by Tony Haslett.'
In contrast, while some of the most desirable New Zealand genera such as the beeches, and the southern conifers will grow well on fertile sites in warmer sites, they are exceptionally well adapted to infertile soils, sometimes poorly drained, and on cool wet sites which do not suit exotics at all.
IMPORTED SPECIES, THEIR ORIGINS, AND WHAT THEY ARE USED FOR.
The import statistics categories for New Zealand are somewhat limited in respect of information on more than a few specifically named tree species. The names recognised in the import statistics are:-
Softwoods (conifers) Juniperus virginiana (red cedar), Pinus lambertiana, Pinus strobus, Pinus monticola, Sequioa sempervirens (redwood), Pseudotsuga menziesii
(douglas-fir or oregon) (they call it Pseudotsuga douglasii), Thuja plicata (Western red cedar), Pinus radiata, larch, rimu, coniferous species other than the above.
Tropical wood: Virola, mahogany (Swietenia spp. (= Honduras or true mahogany)), imbula, balsa.
Tropical wood: dark red meranti, light red meranti, meranti bakau.
Tropical wood: White lauan, white meranti, white seraya, yellow meranti, alan.
Tropical wood: keruing, ramin, kapur, teak, jonpkong, merbau, jelutong, kempas.
Tropical wood: Okoume, obeche, sapele (sapelli), sipo, acajou d'afrique, makore, iroko, tiama, ilomba, mansonia, dibetou, limba, azoha.
Wood (hardwood): Oak.
Wood (hardwood): Beech.
Wood (hardwood): ash, hickory, Juglans species (walnuts).
Wood: Eucalyptus species.
To illustrate some of the special properties of some valued
timbers that are imported into New Zealand, consider the following. I present this information in detail because it is not easy to come by and may be useful as a
reference for the Committee when considering the properties and uses of imported timber.
, Khaya ivorensis
A.Chev., K. anthotheca C.DC.,
african mahogany. Tropical Africa - Zaire. A highly prized rich red-brown furniture and veneer timber.
spp. USA and Europe. Furniture and sports articles. A pale-coloured timber with
Balau, red. ( Shorea spp.; S.guiso, S.kunstleri King, S.collina Ridl., S.ochrophloia E.I. Strugnell ex Sym.). Dense and strong. Heavy construction, Not
Balau yellow, ( Shorea
spp. (1) section Shorea (2) Dense, stiff, very strong, resistant to weather. See it as squared poles at ski-fields where it supports rope-tows against all the stresses, weather and avalanche. Watch for splinters, though.
lagopus. Ecuador. Outstandingly light, strong, stiff and with uniform properties, for its density.
Beech (European) Fagus
Unique fine-patterned figure. Stable, machines and turns very well. Takes a good
finish. Copes extremely well with heat and extreme changes in moisture content
without splitting, warping or furring. Furniture, kitchenware (spatulas,
stirrers. clothes-pegs, trays, cutting-boards, cheese-boards) clothes
Miller Yellow-brown. Stable. Furniture and
Ehrh.USA). Furniture and musical
Harms), Tropical West Africa. Grey to yellow. Very stable and hard. Gunstocks,
billiard tables, turning, inlay
spp. USA. The best of these are tough shock-handle timbers, pale and take a
A.Chev Tropical West Africa.
(Welw.) Benth. et Hook
Chev. Ivory Coast, Zaire. Red-brown. Stable, heavy structures, interior
finishing, flooring including parquet, furniture, turning and carving, garden
furniture, naval construction, vessels in chemical
Donn. ex Sm. Australia. A clear brown timber, stable, heavy construction, heavy
duty flooring and parquet, exterior
Hook.f. S E Asia. Cream to white colour. Interior finishing and
- violet brown. Stable. Interior finishing, furniture, fire-arm stocks, turning
spp. S E Asia. Red-brown, stable. Decking, furniture, interior finishing, naval
construction, wagon bottoms, heavy
Fiji, Solomons, S E Asia. Pale yellow. Stable. Interior finishing,
spp. S E Asia. Brown - red-brown. Stable. Structural,
Papua New Guinea. Rich dark red colour, tough, durable, stable in all weathers.
Favoured for exterior domestic furniture and
spp. S E
Cameroon, Ivory Coast,
(= Honduras or true mahogany)), Lustrous red-brown. Very highly prized for
furniture, interior finishing. Stains in contact with metal., Rare now in
Honduras and other Central & South American forests, mature plantations in
Fiji are the subject of much intrigue at
Tropical west and central Africa, Ivory Coast. Pink-brown to red-brown. Stable.
Irritating dust during manufacture. Interior finishing, furniture, heavy-duty
flooring including parquet, naval construction, turning and
Ivory Coast, tropical west Africa. Yellow to grey, stable, interior finishing
Michaux.) North America. Hard, tough and stable flooring as in dance and sports
(dark red meranti,
spp. sections Rubella, Brachyptera, Pachycarpae, Multica & Ovalis S E Asia)
Red-brown and pink in a variety of tints. Stable. Interior finishing and
furniture. Garden furniture.
meranti, meranti bakau, white meranti, yellow
spp. S E Asia. Yellow-brown to reddish-brown, luminous. Stable. Interior
finishing, furniture, parquet,
There are two common species in Europe, at least one in Japan, and less than
sixty in North America. Those species most imported are strong, hard, stable,
tough, have a pronounced figure, neutral or pale colour (sometimes pinkish) and
take a good finish, and are used at least for furniture, parquet and flooring.
Cameroon, Ivory Coast - West Africa. White to cream. Stable, easily worked,
interior finishing, furniture, saunas.Okoume,
Congo. High quality furniture and interior finishing.Ramin.
Gonystylus spp. S E Asia. Yellow-brown. Stable. Interior finishing, furniture, turning.Rubberwood.
Muell. Arg. S E Asian plantations. Pale with red lights. Stable. Interior finishing, furniture, parquet,
(sapelli), ( 'West African Mahogany' )
Sprague. West Africa, Cameroon, Zaire. A rich red lustrous timber, prized for
veneer, furniture, interior finishing, turning,
Symm. mostly. S E Asia. Internal finishing and
Sprague West and Central Africa; Cameroon. Ruddy-brown. Stable. Interior
finishing, furniture, naval construction, turning,
F.v.M. Australia. Light brown, sometimes pinkish. Furniture, parquet flooring,
Native to India, grown in plantations in Indonesia (planted by the Dutch)
Malaysia and central/south America.. A greasy wood which resists the effects of
sunlight and water. Holds a smooth finish even when unprotected and does not
crack or shrink and swell with changes in heat or wetness. Superb for decks and
wooden exterior boat fittings, exterior furniture. Without
C.DC Central and west tropical Africa. Ghana. Red-brown. Stable. Easily worked,
spp. S E
- conifers (pines, kauri, podocarps, firs, spruces, some cedars,
Dakua makadre. Fijian kauri. As for NZ
Europe, Scandinavia and Russia. Internal and external finishing, some furniture,
(Raf.) Sarg. W USA & Canada. Very stable but soft and light, exterior
(red cedar), USA. Pencils. Even, close grain that is easily cut; stable, does
not shrink or swell or warp
species) USA, Europe, Russia. Fairly stable. Flooring. Splinters can be
USA. stable, easily cut, for pattern-making in metal
USA. stable, easily cut, for pattern-making in metal
USA. stable, easily cut, for pattern-making in metal
(Mirb.) Franco(douglas-fir or oregon) (Customs call it Pseudotsuga douglasii),
USA and Canada. Best grades of old-growth have extremely close growth rings, and
are strong while relatively light-weight. Ladder stiles. Demanding structural
uses especially where aesthetics are
Endl.(redwood), USA. Stable; shingles,
D.Don. (Western red cedar), USA and Canada. Extremely stable, resists splitting
in sun and rain, durable. In high demand in NZ for external joinery and
fashionable external cladding for buildings, domestic and otherwise, shingles,
on the list of imported species
is clear that among the highly valued properties of timber, dimensional
stability rates highest, and for furniture and interior finishing timbers,
specific rich colour, figure, lustre, and ease of working and finishing rate
very highly for the most expensive products. For high quality solid wood
products not at the very pinnacle of value, the valued properties are much the
same but the natural colour should be rather neutral and ease of taking up
stains assumes greater
are the qualities that New Zealand citizens want in their furniture and
is not apparent from the above, however, are the many species imported in
quantity, that do not show explicitly in the statistics. For example, while one
expects and finds eucalypts as being important high-volume hardwood sawn-timber
imports from Australia ( 1674m3, NZ$ 1,674 million), Australian tropical and
other non-eucalypt hardwoods totalled 1605m3, valued at NZ$ 2,361 million;
nearly as much in volume but costing 41% more. Imports from PNG, and Indonesia
and other South East Asian countries, and also Fiji also deserve close
biological and social costs of some imported alternative
such as oak from USA and Europe, and beech from Poland and Rumania, where
state-organised and NGO encouragement and regulation of and for professional
forest management probably have little or no negative impact on forests and
wildlife and may well fit in with sustainable management
respect of imports from all tropical and west African countries, Indonesia and
other South East Asian countries, and PNG, the Solomons and Fiji, and Australia,
this is unlikely to be so in many instances. It is most probable that the
forests from which much of this timber is sourced are being destroyed, not
maintained and managed sustainably. That said, it must be noted that some other
countries are making remarkable achievements in resource conservation and
sustainable forest management to high
Furniture Manufacturer's Association, for example, endeavour to ensure
that their supplies are sourced from forests where the management fits in with
Government official plans. Such plans however, may be of questionable standard
in respect of present thinking about forest management and sustainability of
natural forests; for example, timber is being sourced from one 30,000 hectare
forest tract in Indonesia that is being clearfelled - but clearfelling and
conversion of the forest to farmland fits in with government
PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRY IN RELATION TO SPECIAL PURPOSE TIMBER SPECIES
Industry, other than small, craftsman-based workshops making custom products, needs to be able to enter into contracts for supply of large orders for components and
finished, assembled products.
among the vitally important criteria that larger businesses examine when
researching sources of supply, in addition to the properties of the timber, are
continuity of supply (size of resource, reliability of supplier, and physical
routes of supply (road, rail,
uniform qualities of
species for the
DISCUSSION ABOUT THE ABILITY OF GENERAL PURPOSE TIMBER SPECIES TO MEET SPECIAL PURPOSE TIMBER NEEDS, AND THE SPECIAL TIMBER PROPERTIES OF SOME TREE SPECIES
The properties of radiata pine timber are not uniform either in one tree or throughout all the sites where it is grown in New Zealand. For example, outer timber from 60-year old trees grown in warm, wetter North Island sites, is stiff, strong, dense, hard, close-grained, and finishes well. Such wood meets some special purpose needs. However, it is now very difficult to find. Most forests are grown to a maximum of about 30 years rotation, so dense stiff clearwood will not be available from such trees. Carter Holt Harvey (CHH), in
their 1999 'Millennium policy', plan to cease pruning and thinning, and achieve their clearwood recovery within sophisticated processing factories using clever cutting and gluing procedures to reconstitute clearwood from small clear fragments. Such timber will be soft and not stiff. Radiata pine from Westland has a fine lustre, but is weak and soft. From Canterbury, it tends to be weak and soft, and in addition, warps and twists in seasoning and service to a degree unknown elsewhere in New Zealand. Exposed to sunlight and heat, much radiata pine cracks dreadfully. There is a paucity of commercial supply of white timbers, such as poplar, willow and birch.
CULTURE AND PRODUCTION OF SPECIAL PURPOSE TIMBER SPECIES IN NEW ZEALAND - EXOTIC AND INDIGENOUS SOURCES
New Zealand no longer has a coherent and effective national policy for the culture and production of Special Purpose timber species, or the means to put any such policy into
effect.For the past fifteen years, reliance has been placed largely on private investors, most of whom have difficulty in deciding to invest in new forests with a
rotation length as great as thirty years (such as radiata pine) and very few make the step to invest in new forests requiring the longer rotations that special purpose species generally do.
The 1979 Workshop on Special Purpose Species came about because it was recognised that the production of indigenous timbers would decline - not only within New Zealand
but world-wide - while at the same time demand for the products would increase. The intention was to aid the formulation of a coherent and effective national strategy.Since then, the production of New Zealand indigenous timbers has indeed declined, and
the potential for future production was drastically curtailed by political fiat in the years 1999 and
New Zealand also no longer has the detailed information on the resource of exotic special purpose species that is needed to enable coherent and meaningful planning in this matter. As I was recently informed by a MAF staff person who works in this subject area.
" The National Exotic Forest Description (NEFD) does not have any further species breakdown other than what is currently published ie radiata pine, Douglas-fir,
other softwoods and hardwoods.
I appreciate that for some people this would be useful. However, for the bulk of users the current breakdown seems to work satisfactorily and between radiata
pine and Douglas-fir covers 95% of NZ's planted production forests.The NEFD Steering Committee has discussed having further species breakdown on a number of occasions. The most likely candidates being Eucalyptus spp and Cypress spp. But because of the difficulties of collecting this data has always ruled it
out.What is pointed out to MAF by those supplying data each year (the large forestry companies and smaller growers) is the extra time it would take to include a further breakdown. In addition we already receive complaints from smaller growers that the NEFD questionnaires are too complicated so we have been try to simplify them and are very reluctant to add any additional questions.
The reason the questionnaires are complex is because of the emphasis on collecting the area by year of planting, by species group, by
tending regime (for radiata), by local authority. This means that for growers with a variety of species they need to complete a separate
page for each species. The larger companies already supply thousands of pages of data each
year.If an agency or organisation wanted information on other species they could conduct a specific survey or fund Statistics NZ, MAF or some other third party to do so."
I attach a table which gives some details of exotic special purpose species recoverable volumes by region..On the other hand, information on the national indigenous state forest estate, by species, is available as I understand it, even if rather approximate in detail.
TIMBER AND OTHER FOREST PRODUCT IMPORTS INTO NEW
The total c.i.f. value of imported forestry products (paper and paper-board, timber, chemical pulp, wooden furniture and furniture parts) for the year ended 30 June 2000 is provisionally NZ$ 1,104
million, 13.3% up from the NZ$ 975 of the previous year.The total c.i.f. value of all NZ imports for the year ended June 2000 is provisionally NZ $29,068 million.
Thus forest products imports for the June 2000 year were 3.8% of the total import bill, down from the 4.0% of the previous year.
The solid volume of all forestry products expressed in roundwood equivalents is provisionally 1,737,000 cubic metres, up 7.2% from the previous year.
Total timber imports increased by 16.7% in volume to
39,000 cubic metres, valued at NZ$ 51 million,
up 30.6% from the previous year. Hardwood sawn timber imports were NZ$ 17 million and conifer sawn timber imports NZ$ 31 million.Wooden furniture and furniture imports increased in value by 24.2% to NZ$ 102 million from the NZ$ 82 million of the previous year.Forestry products other than logs
and poles, sawn timber and sleepers, wood pulp, paper and paperboard, panel products furniture and furniture parts imported cost NZ$ 377 million
provisionally for the June 2000 year.
The 33 main countries from which New Zealand imported these products were:Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Britain, Canada, China, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Portugal, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, United States, Vietnam.
Looking broadly at imports by categories, the main product categories of interest are named: sawn timber and sleepers, panel products, furniture and furniture parts, and all other forestry products (ie excludes the preceding as well as logs and poles, wood pulp, paper and paperboard).
TIMBER AND FOREST PRODUCT EXPORTS FROM NEW ZEALAND
I have not obtained or analysed this information, but it clearly a component of the whole topic of special purpose species and sustainability, and a thorough examination should take this aspect into account.