Family Equisetaceae, genus Equisetum;
world species list.


By Michael Hassler and Brian Swale.      

A list of the species of the genus Equisetum, giving current name, authority, synonyms, published references, geographic distribution and (sometimes) illustrations.
Please note: an asterisk * in the distribution list means that the species is exotic to the country named.


004.00 Class Equisetopsida Trivial names: Horsetails, Sphenophytes Statistics: 1 order, 1 family, 1 genus, 16 spp. [16 species and 16 hybrids listed] 004.000 Order Equisetales Trivial names: Horsetails, Sphenophytes Statistics: 1 family, 1 genus, 16 spp. [16 species and 19 hybrids listed] 004.0000 Family Equisetaceae A. P. DC.; Fl. Franc. (Lam. & DC.) ed. 3, 2: 580 "1815" (1805) Trivial names: Schachtelhalmgewächse, Horsetails Statistics: 1 genus, 16 spp. [16 species and 19 hybrids listed] 004.0001 Equisetum L.; Sp. Pl.: 1061 (1753) Statistics: 16 spp. nearly cosmopolitan [16 species and 19 hybrids listed] Revision date: 20.07.2001 Trivial names: Schachtelhalm, Rush = Allostelites C. Börn.; Fl. Deutsche Volk 59, 283 (1912) = Hippochaete Milde; Bot. Zeit. 23: 297 (1865) = Presla Dulac; Fl. Haute-Pyrenees 25 (1867) [nom. superfl. Equisetum arvense L.; Sp. Pl.: 1061 (1753) Distribution: Europe, Albania, Austria, Belgium, Baleares, England, Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Faroer Isl., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Iceland, former Yugoslavia, Portugal, Malta, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Spitsbergen, Sicily, Sweden, European Turkey, Jan Mayen, asiatic Turkey (Anatolia), NE-Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Cyprus, Pakistan (Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree Hills), Kashmir, Baltic States, C-European Russia, E-European Russia, Crimea, N-European Russia, W-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Caucasus/Transcaucasus, W-Siberia, C-Siberia, E-Siberia, Amur, Ussuri, C-Asia, China, Korea, Japan, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nunavut, N.W.Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), USA (nearly all states), *New Zealand, India (Himalayas), Nepal, *New South Wales Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum Trivial names: Acker-Schachtelhalm, Field Horsetail = Equisetum arvense f. alpestre (Wahlenb.) Luerss. = Equisetum arvense f. boreale (Bong.) Klinge ex Scoggan = Equisetum arvense ssp. boreale (Bong.) Á. Löve = Equisetum arvense ssp. boreale (Bong.) Tolm. = Equisetum arvense var. alpestre Wahlenb.; Flora Lapponica 296 (1812) = Equisetum arvense var. boreale (Bong.) Ledeb. = Equisetum arvense var. boreale (Bong.) Rupr. = Equisetum arvense var. riparium Parv. = Equisetum boreale Bong. (1832) = Equisetum calderi Boivin (1960) = Equisetum mekongense C. Page; Fern Gaz. 11: 36 (1974) publ. (1975) [fide Fraser-Jenkins (1997) = Equisetum saxicola Suksd. (1901) Equisetum bogotense Kunth; H. B. K., Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 42 (1816) Distribution [complete]: Costa Rica, Galapagos, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil (Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso do Sul, Parana), Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Argentina (Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Jujuy, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Tucuman) Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum = Equisetum flagelliferum Kunze ex Milde (1867) [in syn. = Equisetum flagelliforme Kunze; Linnaea 9: 4 (1834)[1835] = Equisetum rinihuense Kunkel (1964) = Equisetum stipulaceum Vaucher (1822) Equisetum diffusum D. Don; Prod. Fl. Nepal. 19 (1825) Distribution [complete]: India (Himalaya, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan (Nawal Nadi) Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum = Equisetum diffusum var. paucidentatum Page (1975) Equisetum fluviatile L.; Sp. Pl.: 1062 (1753) Distribution: Albania, Austria, Belgium, England, Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Faroer Isl., Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Greece, Aegaean Isl., asiatic Turkey (Anatolia), S-Iran, St. Pierre & Miquelon, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nunavut, N.W.Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Alaska, Aleutes, USA (Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, lowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming), N-European Russia, Baltic States, C-European Russia, W-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea, E-European Russia, Caucasus/Transcaucasus, W-Siberia, C-Siberia, E-Siberia / Amur / Ussuri, C-Asia, Japan, Korea, *New Zealand Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum Trivial names: Teich-Schachtelhalm, Water Horsetail = Equisetum fluviatile var. limosum (L.) Gilbert = Equisetum heleocharis Ehrh.; Hannover. Mag. 21: 286 (1783) [nom. illeg. = Equisetum limosum L.; Sp. Pl.: 1062 (1753) = Equisetum maximum Lam. (1778) [p. p. incl. typo Equisetum giganteum L.; Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: (131 (1759) Distribution [complete]: Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Belize, Honduras, EL Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil (Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, Parana), Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Cordoba, Corrientes, Distrito Federal, Entre Rios, Formosa Prov., Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, Santa Cruz Prov., Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe Prov., San Juan Prov., San Luis, Tucuman), *Kashmir Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete = Equisetum araucanum Phil. (1896) = Equisetum bolivianum Gandog.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 66: 304 (1920) = Equisetum brasiliense Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 1262 (1862) = Equisetum brasiliense f. nuda Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13: 228 (1863) = Equisetum brasiliense var. nuda Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 14: 531 (1864) = Equisetum brasiliense var. ramosa Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 14: 531 (1864) = Equisetum brasiliense f. ramosa Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13: 228 (1863) = Equisetum caracasanum DC.; Steudels Nomencl. Bot. 161 (1824) = Equisetum elongatum var. affine Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Batavi 1: 68 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. dolosum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Batavi 1: 68 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. scaberrimum Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 1264 (1862) = Equisetum giganteum var. asperrimum Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 14: 536 (1864) = Equisetum giganteum var. chilense Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13: 229 (1863) = Equisetum giganteum var. caracasanum Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 1263 (1862) = Equisetum giganteum var. digitaliferum Pastore; Physis 15: 249 (1939) = Equisetum humboldtii Poir.; Lam., Dict. Suppl. 4: 549 (1816) = Equisetum lechleri Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 11: 350 (1861) = Equisetum martii Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 1258 (1862) = Equisetum martii var. minus Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 1262 (1862) = Equisetum philippi Gandog.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 66: 304 (1920) = Equisetum poeppigianum Mett.; Fil. Lechler. 1: 27 (1856) = Equisetum pyramidale Goldmann; Nova Acta Acad. Leop.-Carol. 11: 469 (1843) = Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. var. scaberium Milde (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum H.B.K.; Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 5: 9 (1810) [nom. illeg., non Equisetum ramosissimum Desf (1799) = Equisetum ramosissimum var. affine Midle (1867) = Equisetum scandens Remy; ex Gay, Hist. Fisica y Polit. Chile Bot. 6: 471 (1854) = Equisetum schaffneri Milde (1861) = Equisetum tarapacanum Phil. (1891) = Equisetum xylochaetum Mett.; Filices Lechleriannae 2: 34 (1859) = Hippochaete gigantea (L.) Holub; Preslia 44: 128 (1972) = Hippochaete hyemalis (L.) Börner var. affinis (Engelm.) S.X. Li & J.Z.Wang; Clavis Pl. Chinae Bor.-Or. ed. 2 (ed. P.Y.Fu): 25 (1995) [as 'affine' Equisetum hyemale L.; Sp. Pl.: 1062 (1753) Trivial names: Winter-Schachtelhalm, Common Scouring Rush ssp. hyemale L.; Sp. Pl.: 1062 (1753) Distribution: Albania, Austria, Belgium, England, Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Iceland, former Yugoslavia, Portugal, Malta, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, European Turkey, Algeria, Baltic States, C-European Russia, E-European Russia, Crimea, N-European Russia, W-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, asiatic Turkey (Anatolia), Caucasus/Transcaucasus, W-Siberia, C-Siberia, C-Asia, Xinjiang, India (Kumaon, Kashmir), *New Zealand Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete = Hippochaete hyemalis (L.) Bruhin; Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 18: 758 (1868) = Equisetum asperrimum Gilib. (1792) = Equisetum zonatum Friv. (1836) = Equisetum hiemale var. subramosum A. Br. (1839) = Equisetum hiemale (var.) vulgare Döll (1843) = Equisetum fusco-zonatum Schur (1853) = Equisetum alpinum Schur (1857) = Equisetum hiemale var. elatius Milde (1864) = Equisetum hiemale var. minus A. Br. ex Milde (1864) = Equisetum hiemale var. ramigerum A. Br. ex Milde (1864) = Equisetum hiemale var. vulgare (Doell) Milde (1864) = Equisetum hiemale 1. genuinum A. Br. ex Milde (1865) = Equisetum hiemale f. genuina (A. Br.) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum hiemale f. genuina subf. polystachya (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum hiemale f. minus (A. Br. ex Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum hiemale f. ramigera (A. Br. ex Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum hiemale var. brevivaginatum Rosend. (1917) ssp. affine (Engelm.) Calder & Roy L. Taylor; Canad. J. Bot. 43: 1387 (1965) Distribution [complete]: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, N.W.Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Alaska, Aleutes, USA (all states), Mexico, Guatemala, Guatemala, Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Jalisco, Mexico State, Oaxaca, Puebla, Nuevo Leon, Chiapas, Durango), Kamchatka, Japan, Korea, Amur / Ussuri / E-Siberia, Sakhalin, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi = Equisetum prealtum Raf.; Fl. Ludovic. 13 (1817) = Equisetum robustum A. Braun ex Engelm.; American Journal of Botany 46: 88 (1844) = Equisetum robustum (var.) minus Engelm. (1844) = Equisetum robustum var. affine Engelm.; American Journal of Science, and Arts 46: 88 (1844) = Equisetum hyemale var. californicum Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 1264 (1862) = Equisetum hyemale var. californica Farw.; Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 6: 465 (1916) = Equisetum hiemale var. japonicum Milde (1864) = Equisetum robustum var. drummondii Milde (1867) = Equisetum hiemale f. polystachyum Prager ex A. A. Eat. (1901) = Equisetum hiemale var. herbaceum A. A. Eat. (1903) = Equisetum hiemale var. pumilum A. A. Eat. (1903) = Equisetum hiemale var. drummondi (Milde) A. A. Eat. (1903) = Equisetum hyemale var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11(4): 111-112 (1903) = Equisetum hyemale var. affine f. polystachyum (Prager) A. A. Eat. (1903) = Equisetum hyemale var. affine f. ramosum A. A. Eat. (1903) = Equisetum hyemale var. robustum (A. Braun) A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 75, 112 (1903) = Equisetum hyemale var. prealtum (Raf.) Clute (1908) = Hippochaete hyemalis var. californica (Milde) Farw. (1916) = Hippochaete prealta (Raf.) Farw.) (1916) = Hippochaete prealta var. affinis (Engelm.) Farw.; Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 6: 467 (1916) = Hippochaete prealta var. pseudohyemalis Farw. (1917) = Equisetum affine Rydb. (1917) = Equisetum hyemale var. affine f. pumilum (A. A. Eat.) Victorin (1927) = Equisetum hyemale var. ramosum Honda (1933) = Hippochaete prealta subvar. neopolystachya Farw. (1937) = Hippochaete prealta var. pseudohyemalis subvar. polystachya (Prager) Farw. (1937) = Equisetum californicum (Milde) G. N. Jones (1938) = Equisetum hyemale var. californicum f. herbaceum (A. A. Eat.) Broun (1938) = Equisetum prealtum f. drummondii (Milde) Broun (1938) = Equisetum prealtum var. affine (Engelm.) M. Broun; Index to North American Ferns 93 (1938) = Equisetum prealtum var. affine f. neopolystachyum (Farw.) M. Broun; Index to North American Ferns 93 (1938) = Equisetum prealtum var. affine f. polystachyum (Prager) M. Broun; Index to North American Ferns 94 (1938) = Equisetum prealtum var. affine f. pumilum (A. A. Eat.) M. Broun; Index to North American Ferns 94 (1938) = Equisetum prealtum var. affine f. ramosum (A. A. Eat.) M. Broun; Index to North American Ferns 94 (1938) = Equisetum komarovii Iljin; Flora URSS 1: 110 (1934) = Equisetum hyemale var. elatum (Engelm.) Morton; Leaflets of Western Botany 6(7): 156 (1951) = Equisetum hyemale var. pseudohyemale (Farw.) Morton; An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States 1: 16 (1952) = Equisetum hyemale f. pseudohyemale Farw. Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun; Amer. J. Sci. Arts 46: 87 (1844) Distribution [complete]: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, lowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming), N-Mexico (Baja California Norte, Durango, etc.) Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete Trivial names: Smooth Scouring-rush = Equisetum funstoni A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 10 (1903) = Equisetum funstoni f. caespitosum A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 11 (1903) = Equisetum funstoni f. nudum A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 11 (1903) = Equisetum funstoni f. ramosum A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 12 (1903) = Equisetum funstoni f. polystchyum A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 12 (1903) = Equisetum laevigatum f. ramosum A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 42 (1903) = Equisetum laevigatum f. caespitosum A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 43 (1903) = Equisetum laevigatum f. variegatoides A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 43 (1903) = Equisetum laevigatum f. polystachyum A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 11: 44 (1903) = Equisetum kansanum Schaffn.; Ohio Naturalist (and Journal of Science) 13: 21 (1912) = Hippochaete laevigata (A. Br.) Farw. (1916) = Hippochaete praealta var. scabrella (Engelm.) Farw. (1916) = Hippocaete laevigata var. eatonii Farw. (1916) = Hippocaete laevigata var. funstonii (A. A. Eat.) Farw. (1916) = Equisetum funstonii var. caespitosum Jeps. (1923) = Equisetum funstonii var. nudum Jeps. (1923) = Equisetum funstonii var. ramosum Jeps. (1923) = Equisetum fontinale Copel. (1936) = Hippochaete laevigata var. ramosa (A. A. Eat.) Farw. (1937) = Hippochaete laevigata var. caespiticia Farw. (1937) = Hippochaete laevigata var. caespitosa (A. A. Eat.) Farw. (1937) = Hippochaete laevigata var. variegatoides (A. A. Eat.) Farw. (1937) = Equisetum kansanum f. caespiticum (Farw.) Broun (1938) = Equisetum kansanum f. caespitosum (A. A. Eat.) Broun (1938) = Equisetum kansanum f. eatonii (Farw.) Broun (1938) = Equisetum kansanum f. polystachyum (A. A. Eat.) Broun (1938) = Equisetum kansanum f. ramosum (A. A. Eat.) Broun (1938) = Equisetum kansanum f. variegatoides (A. A. Eat.) Broun (1938) = Equisetum laevigatum (var.) scabrellum Engelm.; Am. Jour. Sci. 46: 87 (1844) = Equisetum laevigatum ssp. funstonii (A. A. Eat.) Hartman; Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 61: 145 (1958) Equisetum myriochaetum Cham. & Schlecht.; Linnaea 5: 623 (1830) Distribution [complete]: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Mexico (Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero, Mexico State, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi, Nuevo Leon, Chiapas), Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete = Equisetum mexicanum Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 11: 355 (1861) = Hippochaete myriochaeta (Schldl. & Cham.) Holub; Preslia 44: 128 (1972) = Equisetum myriochaetum var. densum Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 11: 355 (1861) = Equisetum myriochaetum var. laxum Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 11: 355 (1861) = Equisetum ramosissimum 8. muelleri Milde; Mon. Eq. 438 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 3. sprucei Milde; Mon. Eq. 499 (1867) Equisetum palustre L.; Sp. Pl.: 1061 (1753) Trivial names: Sumpf-Schachtelhalm, Marsh Horsetail Distribution: Albania, Austria, Belgium, England, Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Faroer Isl., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Iceland, former Yugoslavia, Portugal, Malta, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Sweden, European Turkey, Baltic States, C-European Russia, E-European Russia, Crimea, N-European Russia, W-European Russia / Belarus / Ukraine, Caucasus/Transcaucasus, W-Siberia, C-Siberia, E-Siberia / Amur / Ussuri, C-Asia, Japan, China, Tibet, Sichuan, NE-Pakistan, Kashmir, asiatic Turkey (Anatolia), Lebanon, Iran, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, N.W.Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Alaska, USA (California, Idaho, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin) Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum = Equisetum palustre var. americanum Victorin; Contributions de Laboratoire de Botanique de l'Université de Montréal 9: 51, f. 7 (1927) = Equisetum palustre var. simplicissimum L. Braun = Equisetum palustre var. szechuanense Page (1974) Equisetum pratense Ehrh.; Hannover. Mag. 22: 1 (1784) Trivial names: Wiesen-Schachtelhalm, Meadow Horsetail Distribution: Austria, Belgium, England, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labrador, N.W.Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Alaska, USA (Connecticut, Illinois, lowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Vermont, Wisconsin), N-European Russia, Baltic States, C-European Russia, W-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea, E-European Russia, Caucasus, Transcaucasus, W-Siberia, C-Siberia, E-Siberia / Amur / Ussuri, C-Asia, Japan (Hokkaido), NE-China, Manchuria, Korea Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum = Equisetum umbrosum J. G. F. Meyer ex Willd. (1809) Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.; Fl. Atlant. 2: 3 (1799) ssp. ramosissimum Desf.; Fl. Atlant. 2: 3 (1799) Distribution: Albania, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Baleares, England, Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, former Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Portugal, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, European Turkey, Canary Isl. (La Palma, Gomera, Teneriffa, Gran Canaria), Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Western Sahara, Aegaean Isl., asiatic Turkey (Anatolia), Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordania, Palestine, Sinai peninsula, Saudi-Arabia, N-Yemen, Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Socotra, Lithuania, C-European Russia, W-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea, E-European Russia, Caucasus/Transcaucasus, W-Siberia, C-Asia, Japan, Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hongkong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Macao, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Guangdong, Shanghai, Shanxi, Sichuan, South China Sea Islands, Taiwan, Tianjin, Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Japan, Ryukyu Isl., Korea, Transvaal, Oranje Free State, Natal, Cape Prov., Transkei, Namibia, Angola, Swaziland, Lesotho, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Zaire, Mozambique, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar, Capverdes, Mauritania, Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion, N-India (Himalayas), Baluchistan, Pakistan, Kurram, Chitral, Swat, Astor, Baltistan, Ladakh, Zanskar, Hazara, Murree Hills, Kashmir, *Florida, *Louisiana, *North Carolina Trivial names: Ästiger Schachtelhalm Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete = Equisetum campanulatum Poiret; Lam., Encycl. 5: 613 (1804) = Equisetum ramosum DC.; Syn. Pl. Fl. Gall.: 118 (1806) = Equisetum elongatum Willd.; Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 5: 8 (1810) = Equisetum pannonicum Kit. apud Willd. in L.; Sp. Pl. 5: 6 (1810) = Equisetum procerum Pollini; Horti et Prov. Veron. Pl. 28 (1816) = Equisetum thunbergii Wikstr.; Kong. Vet. Acad. Handl. Stockholm 2: 4 (1821) = Equisetum burchellii Vauch.; Mon. Prèles 375 (1821) = Equisetum multiforme Vauch.; Mon. Prèles 379 (1821) = Equisetum multiforme (var.) ramosum Vauch.; Mon. Prèles 379 (1821) = Equisetum multiforme (var.) paleaceum Vauch.; Mon. Prèles 379 (1821) = Equisetum multiforme (var.) tenue Vauch.; Mon. Prèles 379 (1821) = Equisetum multiforme (var.) campanulatum Vauch.; Mon. Prèles 379 (1821) = Equisetum incanum Vauch.; Mon. Prèles 382 (1821) = Equisetum hiemale (var.) procerum Pollini; Fl. Veron. 3: 262 (1824) = Equisetum tenue Presl; Fl. Sicula 1: 46 (1826) = Equisetum pallidum Bory; Exp. Sci. Mor. Bot.: 282 (1832) = Equisetum elongatum f. elatiorem Kunze; Acotyledonearum I (1836) = Equisetum elongatum f. ramosum Kunze; Acotyledonearum I (1836) = Equisetum ephedroides Bory; Nouv. Fl. Pelopon. 66 (1838) [nom. illeg. = Equisetum hiemale ssp. ramosum A. Br.; Flora 22: 308 (1839) = Equisetum hiemale ssp. ramosum var. subverticillatum A. Br.; Flora 22: 308 (1839) = Equisetum hiemale ssp. ramosum var. gracile A. Br.; Flora 22: 308 (1839) = Equisetum hiemale ssp. ramosum var. virgatum A. Br.; Flora 22: 308 (1839) = Equisetum multicaule Lebed.; Fl. Ross. 4: 490 (1853) = Equisetum elongatum var. simplex Döll; Gefäß-Krypt. Baden 66 (1857) = Equisetum caespitosum Schur; Österr. Bot. Zeit. 3: 98 (1861) = Equisetum hiemale ssp. sieboldii Milde (1863) = Equisetum sieboldii Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 62 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. graecum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 63 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. scabrum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 63 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. elegans Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 64 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. humile Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 64 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. ramosissimum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 64 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. tenuissimum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 64 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. arabicum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 65 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. iaponicum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 65 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. malabaricum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 65 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. nudum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 65 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. burchellii Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 66 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. capense Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 66 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. hispanicum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 66 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. sinaiticum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 66 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. abyssinicum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 67 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. arcuatum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 67 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. dregeanum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 67 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. flagelliferum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 67 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. lohseanum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 67 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. incanum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 68 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. boivini Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 244 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. boivini Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 244 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. boryanum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 244 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. distortum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 244 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. ornatum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 533 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. gracile (A. Br.) Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 533 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. subverticillatum (A. Br.) Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 533 (1864) = Equisetum elongatum var. virgatum (A. Br.) Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 533 (1864) = Equisetum ramosissimum 1. subverticillatum (A. Br.) Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 117 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 1. subverticillatum f. persistens Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 117 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 1. subverticillatum f. caducum Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 117 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 2. gracile (A. Br.) Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 117 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 3. humile Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 117 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 4. altissimum Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 117 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 5. ornatum Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 117 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 6. scabrum Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 118 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 7. elegans Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 118 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 8. virgatum (A. Br.) Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 118 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 9. simplex (Döll) Milde; Höh. Sporenpfl. Deutschl. 118 (1865) = Equisetum ramosissimum 10. multicaule (Ledeb.) Milde; Mon. Eq. 439 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 11. malabaricum Milde; Mon. Eq. 440 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 12. japonicum Milde; Mon. Eq. 440 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 13. arabicum Milde; Mon. Eq. 441 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 14. nudum Milde; Mon. Eq. 441 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 15. capense Milde; Mon. Eq. 442 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 16. burchellii Milde; Mon. Eq. 443 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 19. hispanicum Milde; Mon. Eq. 445 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 20. sinaiticum Milde; Mon. Eq. 445 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 21. jacquemontii Milde; Mon. Eq. 446 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 22. lohseanum Milde; Mon. Eq. 446 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 23. dregeanum Milde; Mon. Eq. 447 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 24. arcuatum Milde; Mon. Eq. 448 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 25. abyssinicum Milde; Mon. Eq. 448 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 26. flagelliferum Milde; Mon. Eq. 449 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 27. incanum (Vauch.) Milde; Mon. Eq. 450 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 28. boryanum A. Br. ex Milde; Mon. Eq. 450 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 29. distortum A. Br. ex Milde; Mon. Eq. 451 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 30. boivini A. Br. ex Milde; Mon. Eq. 452 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum 31. natalense A. Br. ex Milde; Mon. Eq. 452 (1867) = Equisetum hungaricum Sandor & Kit.; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 17: 575 (1867) = Equisetum ramosissimum var. schleicheri Du Buysson; Rev. Sci. du Bourbonnais 1: 248 (1888) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. scabra (Milde) Luerss.; Farnpfl. 736 (1889) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. virgata (A. Br.) Luerss.; Farnpfl. 736 (1889) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. simplex (Döll) Luerss.; Farnpfl. 737 (1889) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. elegans (Milde) Luerss.; Farnpfl. 738 (1889) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. gracilis (A. Br.) Luerss.; Farnpfl. 738 (1889) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. subverticillata (A. Br.) Luerss.; Farnpfl. 739 (1889) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. altissima (A. Br. ex Milde) Luerss.; Farnpfl. 740 (1889) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. subverticillata subf. polystachya Luerss.; Farnpfl. 740 (1889) = Equisetum ramosissimum var. fastigiatum Hy; Bull. Soc. Bot. Frane 37: LX (1890) = Equisetum ramosissimum var. renati Hy; Bull. Soc. Bot. Frane 37: LX (1890) = Equisetum ramosissimum f. lacustre Wilcz. & Wirtg.; Pterid. Exs. No. 384 = Equisetum ramosissimum f. trichoides Wilcz. & Wirtg.; Pterid. Exs. No. 385 = Equisetum ramosissimum f. altissimum subf. christii Wilcz. & Wirtg.; Pterid. Exs. No. 546 = Hippochaete ramosissima (Desf.) Bruhin; Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 18: 758 (1868) = Equisetum azoricum Gandog.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 66: 304 (1920) = Equisetum ramosissimum var. orientale Nabelek (1929) = Equisetum ramosissimum ssp. campanulatum var. virgatum f. supina Simon (1950) = Hippochaete ramosissima var. japonica (Milde) J.X. Li & F.Q. Zhou; Bulletin of Botanical Research 11(2): 35-36 (1991) = Equisetum ramosissimum var. japonicum Milde = Equisetum ramosissimum ssp. incanum (Vaucher) Pignatti; Giom. Bot. Ital. 116: 93 (1983) = Equisetum ramosissimum ssp. paleaceum (Vaucher) Pignatti; Fl. Ital. 1: 43 (1982) ssp. debile (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Hauke; American Fern Journal 52(1): 33 (1962) Distribution [complete]: India, Sri Lanka, Himalaya, Nepal, Burma, S-China, Taiwan, Hainan, New Guinea, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji (Viti Levu), Philippines, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, New Guinea, Vanuatu, peninsular Malaysia (Gunung Ulu Kali and near Raub, Pahan), Borneo (Mt. Kinabalu, etc.), Thailand, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isl., Sulawesi, Moluccas Remarks: status doubtful, included by many authors including Fraser-Jenkins (1997) in the nominate subspecies = Equisetum aquaticum Noronha; Verh. Batavia. Genots 5: 14 (1790) [nom. nud. = Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher; Mémoires de la Société de Physique & d'Histoire Naturelle de Genève 1: 387 (1822) = Hippochaete debilis (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Holub; Preslia 44: 128 (1972) = Hippochaete debilis (Roxb.) Ching; Fl. Xizangica 1: 29 (1983) = Hippochaete ramosissima ssp. debilis (Roxb. ex Vaucher) A.Löve & D.Löve; Taxon 26(2-3): 324 (1977) = Equisetum timorianum Vauch.; Mon. Prèles 376 (1821) = Equisetum pallens Wall.; List of Plants 29 (1828) = Equisetum laxum Blume; Enum. Pl. Javae 274 (1830) = Equisetum virgatum Blume; Enum. Pl. Javae 274 (1830) = Equisetum huegelii Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 11: 356 (1861) = Equisetum huegelii var. majus Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 11: 358 (1861) = Equisetum huegelii var. minus Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 11: 358 (1861) = Equisetum debile var. gracile Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 13: 231 (1863) = Equisetum debile var. laevissimum Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 13: 230 (1863) = Equisetum debile var. polystachyum Milde; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 13: 231 (1863) = Equisetum debile var. caespitosum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 60 (1864) = Equisetum debile var. divaricatum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 60 (1864) = Equisetum debile var. majus Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 60 (1864) = Equisetum debile var. minus Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 60 (1864) = Equisetum debile var. nudum Milde; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 243 (1864) = Equisetum debile var. pashan Mahabale; Jour. Univ. Bombay 6: 62 (1938) = Equisetum altissimum A.Braun; [fide Fraser-Jenkins (1997) = Equisetum ramosissimum var. altissimum (A. Braun) Bir; Indian Fern Journal 2(1-2): 42 (1985) [fide Fraser-Jenkins (1997) Equisetum rinihuense Kunkel; Ber, Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 74: 59, tab (1964) Distribution [complete]: Chile Equisetum scirpoides Michx.; Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 281 (1803) Trivial names: Dwarf Scouring Rush Distribution: +Austria, +Finland, Norway, Spitsbergen, Sweden, Greenland, St. Pierre & MiqueIon, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, N.W.Territories, Nunavut, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Alaska, USA (Idaho, Illinois, lowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, South Dakota, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin), W-Siberia, C-Siberia, E-Siberia / Amur / Ussuri, Japan, Lithuania, Novaja Zemlja, Kamchatka, N-European Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, C-European Russia, E-European Russia Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete = Hippochaete scirpoides (Michx.) Farw. (1916) = Hippochaete scirpoides (Michx.) Rothm.; [comb. superfl. = Equisetum hiemale var. tenellum Liljeb. (1798) = Equisetum reptans Wahlenb. (1812) = Equisetum setaceum Vauch. (1821) = Equisetum scirpoides (var.) minus Lawson (1863) = Equisetum tenellum A. A. Eat. (1904) = Equisetum scirpoides var. elatum Rosend. (1917) = Equisetum scirpoides var. ramulosum Rosend. (1917) = Equisetum scirpoides var. caespitosum Rosend. (1917) = Equisetum scirpoides var. alpestre Rosend. (1917) = Equisetum scirpoides var. pedunculatum Rosend. (1917) Equisetum sylvaticum L.; Sp. Pl.: 1061 (1753) Trivial names: Wald-Schachtelhalm, Wood Horsetail Distribution: Austria, Belgium, England, Bulgaria, Crete, ?former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, ?European Turkey, Cyprus, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nunavut, N.W.Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Alaska, USA (Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, lowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin), N-European Russia, Baltic States, C-European Russia, W-European Russia, E-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Caucasus/Transcaucasus, W-Siberia, C-Siberia, E-Siberia / Amur / Ussuri, C-Asia, Japan, NE-China, Korea, Manchuria Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum = Equisetum capillare Hoffm.; Deutsche. Fl. 2: (1796) = Equisetum sylvaticum var. multiramosum (Fern.) Wherry (1937) = Equisetum sylvaticum var. pauciramosum Milde = Equisetum sylvaticum f. multiramosum Fernald; Rhodora 20(235): 131 (1918) = Equisetum sylvaticum f. opsistachyum Lepage Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.; Hannover. Mag. 21: 2 (1783) Trivial names: Riesen-Schachtelhalm, Giant Horsetail ssp. telmateia Ehrh.; Hannover. Mag. 21: 2 (1783) Distribution: Albania, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Baleares, England, Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Portugal, Malta, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Sweden, European Turkey, Baltic States, C-European Russia, E-European Russia, Crimea, N-European Russia, W-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Caucasus/Transcaucasus, Aegaean Isl., asiatic Turkey (Anatolia), Cyprus, Lebanon, Iran, Syria, Israel, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Madeira, Porto Santo Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum = Equisetum majus Schinz K Thell.; Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 53: 515 (1909) [nom. illeg. = Equisetum majus Garsault; Description, Vertus & Usages de Sept Cents Dix-Neuf Plantes, Tant étrangères que de Nos Climats 166 (1767) = Equisetum maximum Lam. (1778) [p. p. excl. typo = Equisetum eburneum Schreb. ex Rorth (1797) = Equisetum macrostachyon Poir. (1804) ssp. braunii (J. Milde) Hauke; Nova Hedwigia 30: 434 (1978) Trivial names: Giant Horsetail Distribution [complete]: W-Canada (Vancouver Island, British Columbia), S-Alaska (Kodiak Isl.), NW-USA (Washington, Oregon, S-California) = Equisetum braunii Milde; Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 515 (1862) = Equisetum telmateia var. braunii (Milde) Milde; Monographia Equisetorum 246 (1867) Equisetum variegatum Schleicher ex F. Weber & D. Mohr; Bot. Taschenbuch 60: 447 (1807) Trivial names: Bunter Schachtelhalm, Variegated Horsetail ssp. variegatum Schleicher ex F. Weber & D. Mohr; Bot. Taschenbuch 60: 447 (1807) Distribution: Iceland, N-Europe, C-Europe, south to, Pyrenees, N-Apennines, Spain, France, N-Italy, Austria, Hungary, former Yugoslavia, asiatic Turkey (Anatolia), Greenland, St. Pierre & MiqueIon, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nunavut, N.W.Territories, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Alaska, Aleutes, USA (Colorado, Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming), N-European Russia, Baltic States, C-European Russia, Belarus, Urals, Caucasus/Transcaucasus, W-Siberia, C-Siberia, E-Siberia / Amur / Ussuri, Japan, Kamchatka Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete = Hippochaete variegata (Schleicher) Bruhin; Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot, Ges. Wien 18: 758 (1868) = Equisetum hyemale ssp. variegatum (Schleich. ex Web. & Mohr) A. Braun = Equisetum reptans (var.) variegatum Wahlenb. (1812) = Equisetum multiforme (var.) variegatum Vauch. (1821) = Equisetum hiemale ssp. variegatum A. Br. (1839) = Equisetum hiemale (var.) variegatum (Schleich.) Newm. (1843) = Equisetum variegatum var. wilsoni Newm. (1844) = Equisetum arenarium Newm. (1841) = Equisetum variegatum (var.) reptans (Wahlenb.) A. Br. (1844) = Equisetum variegatum var. elatum Rabenh. (1848) = Equisetum variegatum var. arenarium Babington (1851) = Equisetum variegatum var. caespitosum Doell (1857) = Equisetum variegatum var. concolor Doell (1857) = Equisetum variegatum var. virgatum Doell (1857) = Equisetum variegatum var. huefleri Milde (1864) = Equisetum variegatum var. anceps Milde (1864) = Equisetum variegatum var. alpestre Milde (1864) = Equisetum tenellum Krok. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. caespitosa (Doell) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. virgata (Doell) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. alpestris (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. elata (Rabenh.) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. huefleri (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. anceps (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. arenaria (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. wilsoni (Newm.) Luerss. (1889) = Hippochaete variegata (Schleich.) Farw. (1916) = Hippochaete variegatum (Schleich.) Boern. (1912) = Hippochaete variegata var. anceps (Milde) Farw. (1916) = Equisetum variegatum var. wilsoni f. polystachyum Rosend. (1916) = Equisetum variegatum var. wilsoni f. tortuosum Rosend. (1917) = Equisetum variegatum var. wilsoni subvar. ramosissimum Rosend. (1917) = Equisetum variegatum f. anceps (Milde) Broun (1938) = Equisetum variegatum f. geminatum S.F. Blake; Rhodora 15(177): 156 (1913) = Equisetum variegatum var. multirameum S.F. Blake; Rhodora 15(177): 156-157 (1913) ssp. alaskanum (A. A. Eat.) Hulten; Acta Univ. Lund. 37(1): 59 (1941) Distribution [complete]: W-Canada (British Columbia, Yukon), Alaska, Aleutes, NE-USA (Washington) = Equisetum variegatum var. alaskanum A. A. Eat.; Merriam, Harriman Alaska Exped. 5: 390 (1904) = Hippochaete hyemalis var. alaskana (A. A. Eat.) Farw. (1916) = Equisetum alaskanum (A. A. Eat.) Anderson (1943) Equisetum x alsaticum (H.P.Fuchs & Geissert) comb. ined. Distribution: France = Hippochaete x alsatica H.P.Fuchs & Geissert; Bauhina 7(1): 10 (1980) Equisetum x bowmanii C.N.Page; Watsonia 17(3): 273 (1989) Distribution: England Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum sylvaticum x telmateia Equisetum x dubium Dostal Distribution: Europe Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum arvense x telmateia Equisetum x dycei C.N.Page; Fern Gaz. 12(3): 178 (1981) Distribution: England Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum fluviatile x palustre Equisetum x ferrissii Clute; Fern Bull. 12: 22 (1904) Trivial names: Ferriss' Scouring-rush Distribution [complete]: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, lowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming), N-Mexico (Baja California Norte) Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete, Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine x Equisetum laevigatum = Equisetum laevigatum (var.) elatum Engelm. (1844) = Equisetum hyemale (var.) intermedium A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 10: 120 (1902) = Equisetum hyemale (var.) intermedium f. polystachyum A. A. Eat.; Fern Bulletin 10: 122 (1902) = Equisetum hiemale var. suksdorfi A. A. Eat. (1903) = Equisetum fluviatile var. siccum Lunell (1908) = Hippochaete prealta var. suksdorfi (A. A. Eat.) Farw. (1916) = Hippochaete laevigata var. eatonii Farw. (1916) = Equisetum intermedium (A. A. Eat.) Rydb. (1917) = Equisetum laevigatum f. proliferum Haberer (1923) = Equisetum hyemale (var.) intermedium f. proliferum Haberer (1923) = Equisetum hyemale var. affine f. intermedium (A. A. Eat.) Vict.; Contributions de Laboratoire de Botanique de l'Université de Montréal 9: 89 (1927) = Equisetum prealtum (var.) laevigatum (A. Br.) Bush (1930) = Equisetum kansanum f. elatum (Engelm.) Broun (1938) = Hippochaete x ferrissii (Clute) Holub; Preslia 44: 128 (1972) Equisetum x font-queri Rothm. (1944) Distribution: Europe Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum palustre x telmateia Equisetum x hybridum Huter Distribution: Europe, USSR Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum arvense L. x Equisetum variegatum Equisetum x litorale Kuehlew. ex Rupr.; Beitraege zur Pflanzenkunde des Russischen Reiches 4: 91 (1845) Distribution: N-Europe, C-Europe, widespread, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nunavut, N.W.Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Alaska, USA (Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, I Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming), W-Siberia, C-Siberia, Baltic States, C-European Russia Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum arvense x fluviatile Equisetum x meridionale (Milde) Chiov. Trivial names: Südlicher Schachtelhalm Distribution: C-Europe, ?S-Europe, USSR Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum ramosissimum x variegatum = Equisetum variegatum var. meridionale Milde = Hippochaete x meridionalis (Milde) Holub; Preslia 44: 128 (1972) Equisetum x mildeanum Rothm. (1944) Distribution: Europe, Russia Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum pratense x sylvaticum Equisetum x montellii Hiitonen (1933) Distribution: Europe Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum arvense x pratense = Equisetum x suecicum Rothm. (1944) Equisetum x moorei Newm.; Phytologist 5: 19 (1856) Distribution [complete]: England, France, Switzerland, N-Italy, Austria, Germany, Gotland, Iceland, Lithuania, Poland, former Czechoslavakia, Hungary, SE-European Russia Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete, Equisetum hyemale L. x Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. = Hippochaete moorei (Newman) H. P. Fuchs; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 9: 13 (1963) = Equisetum trachyodon b. moorei Newm. (1857) = Equisetum trachyodon (var.) schleicheri Milde (1863) = Equisetum hiemale var. schleicheri Milde (1863) = Equisetum hiemale var. schleicheri f. minor Milde (1863) = Equisetum hiemale var. schleicheri f. major Milde (1863) = Equisetum hiemale var. schleicheri f. ramosa Milde (1863) = Equisetum hiemale var. schleicheri f. polystachya Milde (1863) = Equisetum intermedium Schur (1866) = Equisetum hiemale 9. schleicheri f. ramigera Milde (1867) = Equisetum hiemale f. schleicheri (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum hiemale f. schleicheri subf. polystachya (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum hiemale f. schleicheri subf. ramosa (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum hiemale var. occidentale Hy (1890) = Equisetum occidentale Hy (1890) = Equisetum occidentale f. capillaris Hy (1890) = Equisetum occidentale f. normalis Hy (1890) = Equisetum x samuelssonii W. Koch ex Rothm. (1944) = Hippochaete x samuelssonii (W. Koch) Rothm. (1944) = Equisetum ramosissimum ssp. moorei (Newm.) Maire (1952) = Equisetum schleicheri Milde (1857) = Equisetum hyemale ssp. moorei (Newm.) Syme & N. E. Br. = Equisetum hyemale var. moorei (Newm.) Hook. & Arn. Equisetum x naegelianum W. Koch ex Rothm. (1944) Distribution [complete]: Switzerland Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete, Equisetum ramossissimum x variegatum = Hippochaete x naegelianum (W. Koch) Rothm. (1944) Equisetum x nelsonii (A. A. Eat.) Schaffn.; Amer. Fern J. 16: 46 (1926) Distribution [complete]: Canada (Ontario, Quebec), USA (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New York, Oregon, Wisconsin, Wyoming) Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete, Equisetum laevigatum x variegatum = Equisetum variegatum var. nelsonii A. A. Eat.; Fern Bull. 12: 41 (1904) = Hippochaete nelsoni (A. A. Eat.) Farw. (1916) Equisetum x rothmaleri C. Page; Watsonia 9: 229 (1973) Distribution: England, Europe, Russia Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum arvense x palustre = Equisetum x torgesianum Rothm. (1944) Equisetum x schaffneri J. Milde; Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 11: 345 (1861) Distribution [complete]: Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico (Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete, Equisetum giganteum x Equisetum myriochaetum = Hippochaete x schaffneri (Milde) Holub; Preslia 44: 128 (1972) = Equisetum elongatum var. annuliferum Milde (1864) = Equisetum ramosissimum var. annuliferum Milde (1867) Equisetum x trachyodon (A. Braun) Koch; Flora 22: 305 (1839) Trivial names: Rauhzähniger Schachtelhalm Distribution: Iceland, Scandinavia, England, N-France, Austria, former Czechoslovakia, Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, Baltic States, C-European Russia, Latvia, Caucasus, Greenland, Canada (British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan), USA (Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Vermont, Wisconsin) Remarks: Subgen. Hippochaete, Equisetum hyemale L. x Equisetum variegatum = Equisetum hiemale (var.) trachyodon (A. Br.) Döll (1843) = Equisetum hiemale f. doellii (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum hiemale var. doellii Milde (1863) = Equisetum hyemale (var.) mackaii Newman; Phytologist 1: 305 (1843) = Equisetum hyemale ssp. trachyodon A. Braun (1839) = Equisetum hyemale var. jesupi (A. A. Eat.) Victorin (1927) = Equisetum hyemale var. jesupi f. geminatum Vict. (1927) = Equisetum hyemale var. jesupi f. multirameum Vict. (1927) = Equisetum trachyodon (var.) genuinum Milde (1863) = Equisetum trachyodon f. anglica Milde (1863) = Equisetum trachyodon f. continentalis Milde (1863) = Equisetum trachyodon f. geminatum (Blake) Broun (1938) = Equisetum trachyodon f. multirameum (Blake) Broun (1938) = Equisetum trachyodon f. polystachyum Rosend. (1917) = Equisetum variegatum f. concolor (Milde) Luerss. (1889) = Equisetum variegatum f. jesupi (A. A. Eat.) Clute (1903) = Equisetum variegatum var. anglicum Milde (1864) = Equisetum variegatum var. concolor Milde (1864) = Equisetum variegatum var. continentale Milde (1864) = Equisetum variegatum var. jesupi A. A. Eat. (1901) = Equisetum variegatum var. jesupi f. geminatum Blake (1913) = Equisetum variegatum var. jesupi f. multirameum Blake (1913) = Equisetum x mackaii (Newman) Brichan; Phytologist 1: 369 (1843) = Hippochaete hyemalis var. jesupi (A. A. Eat.) Farw. (1916) = Hippochaete trachyodon (A. Br.) Boern. (1912) = Hippochaete variegata var. jesupi Farw. (1930) = Equisetum trachyodon f. fuchsii Geissert = Hippochaete fuchsii (Geissert) H.P.Fuchs & Geissert; Bauhinia 7(1): 12 (1980) Equisetum x wallichianum C. Page; Fern Gaz. 11: 34 (1974) publ. (1975) Distribution: trop. Asia Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum arvense x diffusum Equisetum x willmotii C.N.Page; Glasra (n.s.) 2(2): 135 (1995) Distribution: Ireland Remarks: Subgen. Equisetum, Equisetum fluviatile x telmateia
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For each species, information on its distribution by country and sometimes by province, region or state within a country; conservation status (where applicable), and all synonyms with publishing source (other latin names by which the species has been known) that we could find, and where applicable whether or not the given name has been verified; are available on the CDROM version of this page.

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