At the end of the first period of the 1984 Labour Government, the New Zealand Forest Service was dismantled with the loss of 3,000 jobs. Thus came the ignominious end of a proud organisation and an era of tremendous achievement in respect of planting and managing hundreds of thousands of hectares of highly productive, intensively tended (pruned and thinned) forest that had commenced in 1919, and the splitting of a highly productive connection between forest researchers and production forest staff throughout the country (carried out by the Forest Research Institute with great co-operation with forest field staff, and using the nation-wide base of forests as the data source), and a lot of other things.

(To put the savings of Government money into perspective, the net operating cost to the Government in 1986 of running the State Exotic forests was $100 million. Today, in 1998, $100 million is spent in just 54 hours by the Minister of Social Welfare).

One aspect of the link between research and forest was the production of scores of volume tables for logs, trees and stands of trees throughout the country. These tables, usually not formally published, (although many were) were freely available to anybody who asked for them, and are in the public domain. It is difficult for anybody to obtain them now, as the organisation that made them available no longer exists.

However, there now is just the tiniest stump remaining of the organisation that dispensed this information, and I have gathered together all I have been able to get from people and have put it together in a resource so that once again it will be available for public use.

Clearly, work on this page has just begun, but if you have an interest in its' ultimate contents, please give me a call.

Logarithmic formulae for tree volume tables.

Source; NZFS 1971, author Dr Chris Goulding.

Pinus radiata:

where log e is logarithm to base e, VTS is Total Stem Volume Inside Bark (cubic feet), H is Total tree height in feet, D is diameter at breast height (DBH) outside bark, in inches, H2 is H squared, a, b, c, are constants calculated for the species.

Auckland a = 1.790, b = 1.110, c = -6.2568303

Rotorua a = 1.711, b = 1.196, c = -6.4511570 ... (except for the lowland forest *Rotoehu*)

Rotoehu a = 1.711, b = 1.196, c = -6.3558461

Wellington a = 1.711, b = 1.196, c = -6.4511570 ... (except for the montane forest *Karioi*)

Karioi a = 1.589, b = 1.164, c = -5.9595646

Nelson a = 1.824, b = 1.061, c = -6.1393133

Westland a = 1.711, b = 1.196, c = -6.4511570

Canterbury a = 1.936, b = 0.955, c = -5.9469761

Southland a = 1.865, b = 1.071, c = -6.2518153

Shelterbelts a = 1.840, b= 1.118, c = -6.4441249 .... farm shelterbelts throughout the country

I have a copy of the following reference which can be very valuable to anybody who wants to monitor log volume left lying behind after harvesting.

Warren, W G and P F Olsen. A Line Intersect Technique for Assessing Logging Waste. 1964. 9 pp. Forest Science Vol 10, Nr 3, Sept 1964.

Next are two papers of general interest.

Warren W G. The Distribution of Stand Merchantable Volume by Log-Diameter classes. New Zealand Forestry Research Notes Number 15, Feb 1959. (Includes alignment charts).

Duff, G. Methods of Measurement and Volume Calculation for Exotic Conifers. Technical Paper No. 29, 1960. Forest Research Institute New Zealand Forest Service.

LOG VOLUME TABLES.

L 49. Hanmer Forest, Pinus radiata . (About 1960) Log lengths from 9 to 20 feet.

L 53. Balmoral Forest, Pinus radiata 1962. Log lengths from 8 to 20 feet.

L 54. Eyrewell Forest, Pinus radiata 1961. Log lengths from 8 to 20 Feet.

L 64. Pole Volume Table (P. radiata, P. contorta, P. nigra), Canterbury Conservancy. 1962.

Lengths 18 to 30 feet.

L 69. Ashley Forest, Pinus radiata. 1962. Log lengths from 8 to 20 feet.

L 73. Whakarewarewa Forest. 1963. P radiata natural regeneration. Lengths from 2.4 to 12.1 metres.

L 77. Pole volume table. (Larix decidua, P. nigra (laricio), Pseudotsuga taxifolia). Lengths 10 to 35 feet.

L 81. Eyrewell Forest, 1964. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 10 to 39 feet.

L 82. Kaingaroa Forest, compartment 600. 1964. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 8 to 50 feet.

L 83. Kaingaroa Forest. 1964. Pseudotsuga taxifolia. Log lengths from 8 to 50 feet.

L 93. Kaingaroa Forest. 1964. Pinus nigra (laricio) (planting spacing 8x8 feet). Log lengths from 2.4 to 15.2 metres.

L 101. All sites. All exotic species. 1966. Smallwood volume table. Log lengths from 1.2 to 3.5 metres.

L 107. Kaingaroa Forest, October 1966. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 8 to 50 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 1330 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.544 Log_{10}(L) + 0.02758(D) - 3.333"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 118. Hanmer Forest, May 1967. Pseudotsuga menziesii. Log lengths from 8 to 30 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 209 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.449Log_{10}(L) + 0.04024(D) - 3.117"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 119. Hanmer Forest, May 1967. Pinus nigra (laricio). Log lengths from 8 to 35 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 206 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 1.972Log_{10}(L) + 0.04081(D) - 2.646"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 128. Hanmer Forest, May 1967. Pinus nigra (austriaca). Log lengths from 8 to 25 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 208 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.217Log_{10}(L) + 0.03393(D) - 2.912"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 152. Kaingaroa Forest Compartment 1000, August 1968. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 8 to 43 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 719 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.626Log_{10}(L) + 0.0703(D) - 3.700"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 154. Kaingaroa Forest (Northern), August 1968. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 8 to 46 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 566 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.502Log_{10}(L) + 0.0136(D) - 3.113"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 154. Kaingaroa Forest (Northern) 1968. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 2.0 to 15.0 metres.

L 155. Kaingaroa Forest (Central), August 1968. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 8 to 43 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 432 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.311Log_{10}(L) + 0.0194(D) - 2.857"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 156. Kaingaroa Forest (Southern), August 1968. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 8 to 43 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 612 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 1.940Log_{10}(L) + 0.0245(D) - 2.421"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 157. Kaingaroa Forest (Matea), August 1968. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 8 to 45 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 613 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.319Log_{10}(L) + 0.0340(D) - 3.140"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 159. Kaingaroa Forest , August 1968. Pseudotsuga menziesii. Log lengths from 2.0 to 15.0 metres.

L 161. Kaingaroa Forest, August 1968. Pinus nigra (planted at 6 x 6 foot spacing). Log lengths from 8 to 45 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 2306 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.628Log_{10}(L) + 0.0491(D) - 3.687"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 167. Canterbury Conservancy farm woodlots. November 1968. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 8 to 28 feet.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 983 logs measured at Hanmer and Balmoral State Forests, and Christchurch City 'Bottle Lake' plantation,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 1.888Log_{10}(L) + 0.0246(D) - 2.284"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 197. Eyrewell Forest, Canterbury Conservancy. 1970, metric conversion 1974. Pinus radiata. Log lengths from 2 to 6.4 metres.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 220 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.094Log_{10}(L) + 0.393701(0.0505(D)) - 2.812 - 2.098log0.3048 + log 0.028317"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in dm^{3}, L = length of log in metres, D = small end diameter inside bark in centimetres.

(To convert the volume to m^{3}, multiply by 0.001)

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 230. Eyrewell Forest, Canterbury Conservancy. 1971, metric conversion 1974. Pinus nigra (laricio). Log lengths from 2 to 6.4 metres.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 211 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.092Log_{10}(L) + 0.393701(0.0260(D)) - 2.398 - 2.092log0.3048 + log 0.028317"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in dm^{3}, L = length of log in metres, D = small end diameter inside bark in centimetres.

(To convert the volume to m^{3}, multiply by 0.001)

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 248. Raincliff Forest, Canterbury Conservancy. 1971, metric conversion 1974. Larix decidua. Log lengths from 2 to 6.4 metres.

Calculated on an Elliott 503 computer from data from 220 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 1.856Log_{10}(L) + 0.393701(0.03642(D)) - 2.253 - 1.856log0.3048 + log 0.028317"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in dm^{3}, L = length of log in metres, D = small end diameter inside bark in centimetres.

(To convert the volume to m^{3}, multiply by 0.001)

Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 308. Kaingaroa Forest (Northern stands, first thinning) Rotorua Conservancy. 1973. Pseudostuga menziesii. Log lengths from 8 to 43 feet.

Calculated on FRI computer from data from 573 logs,

using the formula "Log(V_{r}) = 2.2092476Log_{10}(L) + 0.054014232(D) - 3.0585229"

where V_{10} = logarithm to base 10, V_{r} = residual volume of log in cubic feet^{3}, L = length of log in feet, D = small end diameter inside bark in inches.
Formula design: G A V Bary, Program: C P R van der Voort, Approved: G Duff.

L 999. Kaingaroa Forest, Rotorua Conservancy. December 1968. Pinus radiata. Combined table compiled from tables L 154, L 155, L 156, L 157 by weighting each by the expected cut in each area. Log lengths from 8 to 43 feet.

TREE VOLUME TABLES.

T 10. Rotorua Conservancy. November 1953. Pinus radiata, unthinned stands.

Prepared manually by S W Burstall from data from 1523 logs, using combined taper and volume tables.

Revised formula provided by Dr Chris Goulding 9/9/1974

Total Stem Volume (inside bark) = 0.001668D^{2}H + 0.023199H

where D = diameter over bark (inches), TSV is in cubic feet, H = height in feet, stump height = 6 inches.

Also includes tables giving the TSV (i.b.) to top diameters of 4, 6 and 9 inches.

Un-numbered: Rotorua Conservancy. 1975. Pinus radiata, unthinned stands, destined for export. (These were usually from stands with more open spacing than usual).

Stem Volume = 1.711logD + 1.196log(H^{2}/(H-4.5)) - 6.451157